Isme dagan, son of Dagan (Shamash/Adad) o Nintur

A praise poem of Išme-Dagan (Išme-Dagan A + V)

Segment A

1-23. Enlil.. He to whom the great gods pay attention; foundation deposit of the Anuna, living …… of theEnki deities; he whose great divine powers know no opponents, whose …… excel all others, whose …… is achieved by no one; whose …… return of their own accord, whose …… is very sweet in heaven and on earth, whose …… founds cities, whose …… establishes the Land; …… wisdom is perfect as time passes; …… wise in command, re-establishing justice ……, adviser who never tires of discussion; ……, giving verdicts, ……, judge of heaven and earth..Father Enlil, shepherd of the black-headed, by his …… making the foreign countries bow low.

NOT : döma de döda som domare.. e typ J, Osiris o Horus.. ”Fader” låter misstänkt likt J ? Precis som Aplu/Apollon son of Enlil.. 

He whose …… strengthens the boundaries of heaven and earth, whose utterances unite them; lord whose ominous silence pervades the foreign lands, whose actions are spine-chilling, whose complex judgments cannot be revealed by anyone, whose knowledge is honoured by the foreign lands, whose strength is a great battle-net …… the foreign lands, a fine-mesh battle-net …… covering the disobedient; indefatigable …… in heaven, in possession of every one of the divine powers in their totality, linking together the ancient plans; south wind which covers the four quarters; Enlil, whose …… cannot be grasped, whose fame is enough to make people quake; Enlil, great in heaven, surpassing on earth, exceptional and wide-reaching in Sumer, Nunamnir, lord of princes, king of kings! He determined a good destiny in the holy city for me, Išme-Dagan, son of Dagan. (Vem är king of kings? )

He named me with a favourable name even when my seed was inserted into the womb.Nintur stood by at my birth, and she established the office of en for me ……, even when my umbilical cord was cut. Enlil, my principal deity, bestowed on me the shepherdship of Sumer, and assigned to me a tireless protective goddess… Nintur är antingen Ninhurtstag o/lr Ninlil o vad jag tror NINURTA. En av dem är Isis o queen of heaven. … 

He selected me from my people..Enlil, king of the gods, gave me lordship over the south and over the uplands. At Nunamnir’s instigation…and placed crook and staff in my hands. Uraš nursed me on her holy knees. In the Ki-ur, the great place, Ninlil in her radiant heart determined as my destiny that I should sit on an exalted dais until distant days, to enjoy in favour the reign which is my lot; that I should delight Enlil, and that I should daily attend to the E-kur. Enki, the great lord of Eridug, confirmed for me the good and great crown, …… everything, and richly conferred on me seven wisdoms. Suen, the firstborn son of Enlil, ……


Nuska, Enlil’s minister, placed the royal sceptre in my hand, revealed the powers of E-kurto me, established there for me an awe-inspiring podium, and ensured that Enlil’s heart was in a joyful mood. Ninurta, Enlil’s mighty warrior, approached Nunamnir ( Isis?) in speech on my behalf and secured (?) the favourable words of Enlil and Ninlil for me. He has made my reign of kingship excellent, has made me great in lordship, and is indeed my helper. In E-kur he prays continually on my behalf, and is indeed the constable of my kingship. He, who with mighty weapons makes all the foreign countries bow low, has put great power …… into my right hand.

Utu (SOLGUDEN syster till isis, hans far ??)  put justice and reliable words in my mouth. To make judgments, to reach decisions, to lead the people aright, to excel in rectitude,  , so that each man should justice to his brother, should make obeisance to his father, should not speak contrary words to his elder sister, and should respect his mother; so that the weak should not be handed over to the strong, so that the feeble should ……; so that the strong should not do just what he pleases, and so that one man should not be assigned to another (through debt) ; to destroy wickedness and violence, and to make righteousness flourish — all this Utu, the son born to Ningal, made my apportioned share. ( detta är som de tio budorden… är han son till solen ? )

Inana, the lady of heaven and earth ……, chose me as her beloved spouse.( Dumuzid? ! ) She put attractiveness in my waist-belt (?), looking at me with her life-giving look, as she lifted her radiant forehead to me, to make me step onto the flowery bed (bed of roses 🙂 )  She has uttered her unalterable holy word for me to spend long, long days in the ĝipar, combining the priestly office of en with the kingship and caring unceasingly for E-ana..

Enki and Ninki, Enul and Ninul, the Anuna, the lords who determine destiny there, the spirits of Nibru, and the protective goddesses of the E-kur, those who among the great gods determine destinies there, have uttered an unchangeable ”So be it!” On his most favourable day, Enlil, king of the foreign lands, chose me, Išme-Dagan, son of Dagan, by extispicyEnlil has commanded the favourable …… of my throne, the promotion of concord in Sumer and Akkad in their power, and restoration (?) of the …… brick buildings; and that I should daily tend the E-kur, that I should unceasingly provide for Nibru, and that I should care after the Ki-ur, the great place…I, Išme-Dagan, have bent my neck to the commands of Father Enlil; I have paid attention to the utterances of my master. I have established justice in Sumer; I have secured (?) Nibru like heaven itself. I have gathered together the divine powers of the E-kur, I have paid attention to its old ordinances, and I have restored its neglected rites.…   Enlil, my master, ……. The main part of my food, …… drink, his favourite things ……. Enlil ……. I am the …… son of Enlil, I am the …… of Ninlil, I am the strong young man of the E-kur. I am the foremost, with respectful strength, making excellent food offerings. I am untiring, indefatigable. ….I have released its gold, silver, cattle and sheep, the tribute of the citizens of Nibru. As for the temple of Enlil my master, for Ninlil, and for Ninurta, the mighty hero of Enlil, I have exempted their labourers from service. Filtered beer (?), barley, oil and sheep’s wool have been made a tithe. I …… Sumer and Akkad. I …… wickedness and violence, and established justice in Sumer and Akkad. I am the shepherd who loves justice. I am born of Sumer, a son of Nibru.

I am one who is always for ……. I am wise-eyed, of refined intelligence. I am full of advice, energetic in ……. I am all-knowing, singled out from the people.

200-223. I am a judge who gives no explanations; I am a decision-maker who goes straight to the point. The strong does not behave extravagantly towards others, the mighty does not abuse the weak any more. People are not made subject to the lordly. If he does not wish to enter my presence (?) in holy ……, the feeble person may speak contrary words ……. …… slave of my city. …… of Enlil.. Until the distant future (?) ……. I have …… the destructive men. I have destroyed (?) …… the dispossessed (?) who speak with enmity. I have exerted myself ……. I have …… rebellion and destructive criminals ……. I have supported the appeals of the bondsmen, waifs and widows who cry ”Alas, Utu!” or ”Alas, Nanna!”. I have destroyed ……. I have brought about the extermination of the cut-throats who roam (?) the desert. I have kept the just on the proper track, following the wife and the little child. I have sent (?) people nobly into the fields, and established holy shrines (?) in the desert. I have built the city itself for a long future in the whole world.

224-235. The foreign lands gaze at me, Išme-Dagan, as if at their father who engendered them. When like Utu I decide a just verdict, the people bring their prayers to the holy shrines (?). As I establish and realise my powerful statements, advise the people and strengthen the palace, who is to challenge my powerful statements? …… the foreign lands, their people ……. I snatch men from the jaws of destruction…

– I am kind like a father, attentive  like a mother. I am a lofty wall, the encouragement of the Land. I am a tall !

meš tree with thick roots, and broad shining branches. I am the canopy of Sumer, a pleasant shade; I am a place which even a tall person cannot reach. I am the helper of the troops, the focal point of the Land. I am a warrior on the way to battle, I am a powerful runner who goes like the north wind. I am wise …… superior in every respect. I am a belligerent wild bull, kicking up the dust everywhere; I am a battering ram, ……. I stand in the forefront of the shields. I am the hero of heroes, with the strength of a battle-mace, as I smite the rebel lands right and left.….

In accordance with the great destiny decided by Father Enlil, my battle-cry overspreads the remotest parts of the mountains. In the rebel cities no one approaches me or fixes their weapons against me. They bring (?) their tribute spontaneously at Enlil’s command. …… to the mountains. …… nir-igi stone, cornelian, …… stone, {…… their stones} {(some mss. have instead the line:) …… time-consuming labour, ……, labour for the king}. For me the black-headed bring great timbers …… to the Land, while Dilmun bestows lavishly on me its linen, dates and date spadices. The Martu, who know no houses, who know no cities — primitives who live in the hills — bring me row upon row of woolly alum sheep. From the upland mountains, from the …… places, cedar, zabalum, cypress and boxwood were together brought to me. Enlil, my master, who batters the foreign lands into submission, kept the people on a single track, and made them unanimous for me, who am all for Enlil, who am the beloved of E-kur.

274-296. Since the time when Sumer and Akkad had been dispersed, no king had introduced a statue into the shining E-kur of Enlil or into the E-ĝa-ĝiš-šua beside Ninlil. Enlil opened the E-namtila to me from his loving heart. In the E-kur I arranged the great treasures, and allocated durable treasuries. For Enlil my master, I erected a throne whose form was beyond form itself. I stood the throne of Ninlil in the E-ĝa-ĝiš-šua in the Ki-ur, the great place. The throne of Enlil is not to be removed from there. I, Išme-Dagan, son of Dagan, stood the throne for Enlil my master on a dais …… of seven storms, decorated in a masterly and highly skilled manner withnir-igi and šuba stones and translucent lapis lazuli, and I seated Enlil there with my lady Ninlil. I put them into a favourable mood, with happy hearts; I delighted Enlil greatly with those thrones. I measured (?) my gift (?) for him, and my heartfelt act (?) delighted Enlil.

297-315. I …… a sturdy copper statue, shaped in moulds, prayerful as myself, respectful in theE-kur, as a gift offering (?). Enlil, king of heaven and earth, …… the copper statue ……; muscles, sinews and body of a lion
2 lines fragmentary or unclear
I dedicated …… to my master, and brought in mighty timbers, objects of wonder. Then I brought in my great copper statues for Ninlil, lady of the gods, into her ……, her most holy place, the E-šenšena, full of life, and embellished them (?) before her. I dedicated …… to her for my life. It is I who am favourable to ……; I, Išme-Dagan, embellished my inscription ..and my lady Ninlil a copper statue of my own father. …… copper statue of my grandfather…


 They magnify my name in the places where odes are performed. That I am omniscient and broad in wisdom, that I am knowedgeable (?) about the …… of the troops, that I direct the people as a wise shepherd who is brilliant (?) in the face of weapons, that I am skilful in everything, that An has looked favourably on me, that by the word of Enlil ……, that Ninlil is my protection, that Enki has given me wisdom, that Ninurta is all for me (?), that Nanna loves me greatly, that I am the son-in-law of Ningal, that Inana has made me attractive,

that I have understood the contents of tablets, counting and reckoning in all their depth and breadth, checking, coefficients, establishing the surface of a field, and laying out the reed measuring-pole; that I have …… on the podium, my chosen place; that I have learnt with my talented hands, my pure hands, to write the tablets of Sumer and Akkad; that I have lent lustre to the academy by completely mastering the reed stylus and the scribal art; that I have devoted myself to the art of singing, and know the occasions when praise songs are to be sung; that I am eminent in the performance style for …… songs; that I know how to intersperse appropriate words with the accompaniment of the fingers and


instruments; that I have mastered the drumsticks, the sa-eš, the sabitum, the ḫarḫar and the zanaru instruments; that I have {occupied myself with} {(1 ms. has instead:) completely mastered} the developed aspects of the art of singing and the recondite points of …… songs — all these things the scholars and the composers of my …… songs have put in my great songs and have declared in my hymns.

378-383. The powerful king ……, if he stands by Enlil with upraised hands, should swear in the name of the gods ……. Everything that is in my odes, or which is written on my stela, is definitely not false, but genuine! Reverence for me should be in every mouth.

384-393. In the temple my songs should be performed splendidly (?), and my odes should be handed down. Their attractiveness should be right in the heart of the Land, and mouths should carry the words as far as its borders. …… the requirements of the banquet; he should put their attractiveness into the heart ……; …… may Ĝeštin-ana be their protective goddess. …… treasures, lasting property of the king’s heirs, jewels of lordship which cannot be ……, fixing them forever in the mouth of the singers.

394-399. I have …… the regular offerings of Enlil. …… Nibru, the pleasant place; I have put in order the plans of Sumer and Akkad. Therefore Enlil my master has made my days ……, and as he has made my reign follow another reign, so may he make my descendants even greater.

400-419. As he (one of the king’s descendants) performs the duties of shepherdship in Enlil’stemple, may he perform my songs to Enlil, my master; and may the E-kur, my beloved place, resound with my name. My great praise songs shall be performed to Ninlil daily ……; to Nanna, the beneficent lord, the son of Enlil, and …… to him whom the singer loves. …… he shall perform my songs at the evening and morning meals. He shall perform my odes in the temples of the great gods. As I, Išme-Dagan, should stand ready and show respect, …… may my protective deity let me have no rivals, even as far as the borders of the mountains. He has made me great in Sumer and Akkad, and given me a seat on the royal dais; …… my songs are brilliantly

Segment B

1-24. The temple ……; the heart of Enlil ……. The protective gods of the E-kur ……, the protective goddesses of the E-kur.
2 lines fragmentary For my …… of great valuables, for my …… of important treasures; that I have erected …… a throne for Enlil; that I have …… a great waggon, that I have had a sedan chair made for Ninlil; that for Enlil I have had a massive pillar (?) …… brought in, for my master Enlil; that I have had the fifty-headed battle-mace, an exceptional weapon, cast for Ninurta ……, that I have had a great copper throne place in an elevated location for him; that I have had brought into the temple of Enlil a copper statue moulded to the shape of my limbs and a diorite statue worked to my form; that I have placed ……;

The Labours of Heracles form a cycle like the victories of Ninurta. Ninurta is a vigorous champion, a son of the chief god Enlil. An Akkadian text (KAR 76.9) calls him aplu dannu ša Enlil, ‘the strong son of Enlil’, paralleling the formula used of Heracles, ‘the doughty son of Zeus’ (Dios alkimos hyios). In a series of Sumerian texts, starting with the Cylinders of Gudea in the 22nd century and continuing with other Ninurta texts in Sumerian and Akkadian, there are references to a series of monsters, each one different, which Ninurta has killed or captured in separate combats and brought back to his city as trophies. The assemblage of conquests and trophies was taken over by other gods of war. At Babylon they were taken over by Marduk and were represented on his temples, above all on the doors of the great temple Esagila, and mentioned in hymns. In Enūma Eliš they are transmuted into the eleven monsters created to assist Tiamat and defeated by Marduk in a single battle.Among the creatures killed by Ninurta one can certainly recognize some analogies with the objects of Heracles’ Labours. The seven-headed serpent is the most unmistakable. There is also a terrible lion, corresponding to the Nemean Lion; a ‘buck’, which can be a stag or ram, and which might be matched up with the Cerynean Hind; the storm-bird Anzu, which could at a pinch be put beside the Stymphalian Birds; a crab that is trampled underfoot in a pool, recalling the crab that assists the Hydra against Heracles; and a ‘bison’, pictured as a bull-man, which is slain ‘in the middle of the sea’ and might be compared to the Cretan Bull. The captured bulls and cows that Ninurta adds to his dead trophies in Angim and brings back to Nippur may be put beside the cattle of Geryon. The connection with Heracles is strengthened by the fact that in most cases the Greek hero takes the object of his quest back to Eurystheus at Tiryns, as Ninurta takes all of his trophies back to Nippur. Even from the first two Labours, in which a monster is killed, Heracles takes something as a trophy – from the lion its skin, and from the Hydra its Gall. The correspondence would be still more striking if the canonical number of Heracles’ labours, twelve, were matched by that of Ninurta’s trophies, which number is consistently eleven in the Mesopotamian texts. We do not know how early the number twelve became fixed in the Greek tradition, and it is possible that an older version existed with fewer Labours.

Source (list of abbreviations)
KAR 76.9


West 1997, 467-469 West, Martin L. The East Face of Helicon. West Asiatic Elements in Greek Poetry and Myth. Oxford: Clarendon Press 1997.

Amar Annus

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